A surge protector is an electrical device that protects equipment from power surges and voltage spikes by preventing voltage from exceeding a safe threshold . When a threshold exceeds 120V, a surge protector either shorts to ground or blocks the electricity. Without a surge protector, anything beyond 120V can cause irreversible damage, shortened lifespan of internal equipment, burnt wires, and data loss.
Surge protectors are commonly found in communications structures, process control systems, power distribution panels, and other large industrialized systems. Smaller versions are commonly seen in electrical service doors in commercial buildings and households. The different types of surge protection devices are there in market.
How does a surge protector work?
Surge protectors direct excess voltage and current from transient or surge events onto grounding wires, preventing them from passing through electrical and electronic equipment while allowing regular electricity to continue along its route. This extra energy can harm electrical and electronic equipment, as well as process control devices and equipment.Surge protectors are advised for usage in both households and businesses. There are two types of surge protectors. This includes surge protectors for outlets or strips as well as whole-house or building surge protectors.
Types of surge protection device :-
Because power surges vary in both their behaviour and their source, several types of surge protection are intended to defend against distinct risks. Some people prefer to only defend themselves against the most prevalent threat, while others build a more thorough strategy.
Types of surge protection device are identified as follows in the National Electrical Code® (NEC) and ANSI/UL :-
SPD Type 1:
Permanently connected, designed for installation between the service transformer’s secondary and the line side of the service disconnect overcurrent device (service equipment). Their major duty is to protect the insulation levels of the electrical system from external surges caused by lightning or utility capacitor bank switching.
SPD Type 2:
This spd type is identical to type one in design, however it may be installed by the user. These are installed into your primary breaker. They may be programmed to protect a single circuit or all of the circuits in your home. They protect against both big and tiny surges, while the specifics of their behaviour are significantly dependent on the model.
SPD Type 3 :-
This will be the most familiar type of surge protection to you. Surge protectors for receptacles are affordable and simple to install. A power strip is the most typical form factor. Not only does this safeguard many gadgets, but it also allows you to share a single outlet across multiple low-power devices. Having said that, receptacle surge protectors come in a range of shapes and sizes. They are available as a basic, low-profile socket that fits over a receptacle. There are other types that are meant to resemble a standard outlet, making the surge protector nearly inconspicuous.
SPD Type 1 and Type 2 are also utilised and are typically placed in consumer units. SPD Type 3 should only be used as a complement to Type 2 SPD.